Flux Towers

Turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, net all-wave radiation flux and CO2 flux are monitored by these two Flux Towers, which are installed in the city of Heraklion and representative of a wide area around the Sensors. Both are equipped with IRGASON Integrated CO2/H2O Open-Path Gas Analysers, 3D Sonic Anemometers and CNR1/CNR4 Net Radiometers. The first one (HECKOR) operates since 2016 at the city center and the second one (HECMAS) operates since 2021 at a residential area in Heraklion, while their real time measurements (temperature, wind and air pressure, radiation, fluxes) are available from a dedicated Web Portal providing measurement charts. As of 2023, both flux towers have become integral parts of the ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) flux towers network. This integration underscores the exceptional quality of measurements and the utilization of cutting-edge techniques in the acquisition of data.

Main Features

Parameter HECKOR HECMAS Units
Ground Height 30 69 (m)
Latitude 35.3361 35.3234 (degrees_north)
Longitude 25.1328 25.1302 (degrees_east)
Measurement Height Above Ground 27 24.6 (m)
Mean Building Mean Height (400m. Radius) 11.3 8.5 (m)
Standard Deviation of Building Height (400m. Radius) 4.7 3.4 (m)
Maximum Building Height (400m. Radius) 30.5 21.2 (m)
Plan Area Index 0.5 0.4 (m)

Land Cover Fractions (%)

Source area (400m radius)
Paved Surfaces-Roads 40.9 37.8
Buildings 42.6 41
High Vegetation 7 8.9
Low Vegetation 4.8 7.3
Baresoil 4.6 4.9
Water 0 0